This manual is primarily intended for medical laboratories in developing countries. It was specially prepared for laboratories at the peripheral level of these countries, that is, for small and medium laboratories in regional hospitals, as well as for clinics and rural health centers where a technical specialist works. The lab often works alone. He uses a language that is as simple as possible, observing, where necessary, the usual technical terminology.
The laboratory assistant is responsible for laboratory research, for which he must present the results to the doctor (or his representative), acting in the interests of patients. Therefore, it plays an important role in helping.
Toilets should be in good condition and cleaned regularly. When groundwater is used as a source of drinking water, a risk assessment will ensure that there is sufficient vertical and horizontal distance between the base of the permeable container and the well. leakage or septic field and local groundwater level and / or source of drinking water (minimum horizontal distance 15 m and vertical distance 1.5 m between permeable containers and water sources). drinking water is usually recommended). If the tank or pit is equipped with an exhaust device, evacuation should be carried out in an infiltration well, flushing field or sewer line.
Vehicles. Where possible, motorized emptying and transport should be preferable to manual emptying and transport. All personnel should be trained in the risks of handling wastewater and / or fecal sludge and standard operating procedures. All personnel should wear personal protective equipment (such as closed gloves, masks, caps, overalls and waterproof shoes), especially when manual cleaning or emptying of the sewage system is required.
Treatment. Regardless of the source (Sewage from sewer technology or fecal deposits after on-site cleaning), liquid and solid fractions should be treated before final use or disposal. The treatment plant should be designed and operated in accordance with the specific end use or disposal goal, as well as an approach to risk assessment and management to identify, manage and monitor risks. throughout the system. End use / disposal. Workers working with sewage or faecal sludge should be trained in standard risks and operating procedures, as well as in the use of personal protective equipment. A multi-barrier approach should be used (Use more than one control measure as a barrier against any risk associated with the pathogen).
Change in sanitation behavior. Behavioral change is an important aspect of all sanitation programs and underlies the adoption and use of safe sanitation services. Governments are key stakeholders in coordinating and integrating actions to change the sanitation regime, and they must provide leadership and adequate funding. All sanitation activities should include a strong program to promote sanitation and behavior change (including monitoring and evaluation), in which all stakeholders and participants should be approximately the same. set of goals and strategies. In order to influence behavior and develop successful advocacy activities, it is important to understand the current hygiene behavior and the determinants of this behavior, noting that certain population groups will have different sanitary needs. opportunities for change and obstacles to improvement.
Behavioral interventions are most effective when targeting determinants of behavior; There are a number of models and structures that help to understand and target behavioral factors, and this must be taken into account during the development of interventions. Careful attention should be paid to the model of interventions (isolated behavior change as opposed to integrated approaches, targeted strategies versus global strategies); for a strategy to be effective, it must influence the adoption, commitment and long-term practice of safe behavior. This has been proven by many experts. We always advise you to study the questions thoroughly to avoid mistakes in the future.